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class="mw-headline" id="Etymologie">Etymologie[edit] Taxiila (from P?li: Takkasil?, Sanskrit: ???

?????, IAST: Tak?a?il?, which means "City of Cut Stone" or "Tak?a Rock", is an important archeological site in Taxila Town, Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, about 32 km northwest of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, directly on the Grand Trunk Road. It is 549 meters (1,801 feet) above sealevel.

This is the head office of Taxila Tehsil in the county of Rawalpindi Taxila Town Center near 3 km Tofkian Orange Valley Wakefield Garden. The antique Taxila lay at the hub of the India and Central Asia sub-continent. Taxila's origins as a town date back to around 1000 BC.

1 ] Some of the remains of Taxila date back to the Achaemenid Empire in the sixth centuries BC, followed by Mauryan Empire, Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian and Kushan Empire eras. In Pali Taxila was known as Takkasil? and in Sanskrit as ??????? (Takshashila, IAST: www. aka "City of Cut Stone"). The name Takshashila can also be alternated with "Rock of Taksha" to refer to the Ramayana, which says that the name of the village was Taksha in honor of Bharatas boy and first masters.

According to another derivative, Takshashila is related to Takshaka (Sanskrit for "carpenter") and is an alternative name for N?ga, a non-Indian-Iranian tribe in old India. An early mention of Taxila is contained in P??ini's A???dhy?y?, a paper on Sanskrit grammar from the fourth centuries BC. Ramayana described Takshashila as a splendid town known for its riches and established by Bharata, Rama's younger sibling.

The Buddhist Jatakas describe Taxila as the capitol of the Gandhara Empire and a great educational center with world-famous masters. Takkasila Jataka, better known as Telapatta Jataka, is the story of a Benares princely who is said to be the queen of Takkasila if he could get to the town within seven working days without becoming a victim of the Japanese who attacked travelers in the woods.

Kuñjakar?a, referred to in the Avadanakalpalata, is another monarch associated with the town. The Jain traditions say that Rishabha, the first of the Tirthankaras, used to visit Taxila a million years ago. Taxila's area was inhabited by the New Stone Age, with some remains in Taxila from 3360 BC.

Early Harappan remains around 2900 BC were also found in the Taxila area, although the area was finally given up after the breakdown of the Indus Valley civilization. Taxiila was established at a strategically favorable place along the old "Royal Highway", which linked the Moorish capitol Pataliputra in Bihar with the old Peshawar, Pu?kal?vat?, and further via Kashmir, Bactria and K?pi?a to Central Asia.

In the course of the ages, Taxila therefore repeatedly change owners, and many empires fought for his domination. Archeological digs show that the town could have significantly expanded during the reign of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the sixth millennium BC. The Emperor Darius stayed in the Gandhara area around Taxila during the winters 516-515 B.C. and was preparing for the conquest of the Indus valley, which he did in 515 B.C.[35], whereupon he named Scylax of Caryanda, who was to discover the Indian Ocean from the estuary of the Indus to the Suez.

Under Achaemenid supremacy, the Achaemenid Empire remained under the domination of Xerxes I and for more than a hundred years under Achaemenid Empire. Around 317 BC the ancient Greeks satrap inherited from Alexander were expelled, and Taxila came under the domination of Chandragupta Maurya, a Jain benefactor who made Taxila a local city.

It is said that his adviser, Kautilya/Chanakya, lectured at the Taxila School. When Ashoka, the grandchild of Chandragupta, ruled the town, it became a great place for Buddhist study, although the town experienced a small revolt during this period. Taxila was anneked by the Indo-Greek Bactria empire in the 2. centuries BC.

The Indo-Greeks constructed a new capitol, Sirkap, on the opposite shore of the Taxila stream. In this new era of Roman domination, several tribes (such as Antialcidas) probably reigned from the town as their capitals. At the time of the lull in Greece's domination, the only profitable way for the town was to gain independent power over several trading communities, including most of the city's independent character.

Around the 1. cent. BC or 1. cent. AD, an Indo-Scythian emperor called Azilises had three mint sites, one of which was in Taxila, and minted coin age with facial legend in Greeks and Kharo??h? In 90 BC, the last Grecian king of Taxila was toppled by the Indo-Scythian chieftain Maues.

Gondophares, creator of the Indo-parity kingdom, captured Taxila around 20 BC and made it its capitol. An early Christendom tells that Thomas the Apostle paid a visit to the Gondophars IV around 46 AD,[43] possibly in Taxila, since this town was the capitol of the Gondophars. During the first centuries AD, the ancient Egyptian New Pythagorean philospher Joseph of Tyana Taxila, who called his crew a walled town, was visiting Taxila according to a symmetric layout similar to the one of Nineveh.

Signatures from the year 76 A.D. show that the town came under the Kushan domination at that point after it was conquered by the Parthians by Kujula Kadphise, the creator of the Kushan Empire. Kanishka, the great Kushan emperor, later established Sirsukh, the youngest of the old villages in Taxila.

Kidarites, minions of the Hephthalite Empire, are known to have entered Taxila around 450 AD. Although rejected by the Gupta Emperor Skandagupta, the town would not recover - probably because of the heavy Hun influence in the region, the collapse of commerce, and the tripartite conflict between Persia, the Kidarite state, and the Huns in western Gandhara.

Sweeping over Gandh?ra and Punjab around 470 AD, the White Huns caused extensive damage and destructions of the famed Buddhist convents and stupa of Taxila, a strike from which the town would never be able to recuperate. Between 500 AD and 540 AD the town was under the Hun Empire's domination in South Asia and was languishing.

Looking over the remains of Sirkap. There were no outside agencies such as royalty or locals to take charge of the school activity in Taxila. Pupils who arrived in Taxila had usually finished their elementary schooling at home (up to the ages of eight years) and their secondaries in the ashrams (between eight and twelve years) and therefore came mainly to Taxila to finish their studies in certain subjects.

At the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, the places of a number of important towns mentioned in old India manuscripts were discovered by scientists. However, the town of Taxila was not discovered until 1863-64. Cunningham Alexander, the founding general manager of the Archaeological Survey of India, noted that this location did not coincide with the description in the routes of China's pilgrims, especially Xuanzang, the Buddhist friar of the seventh centuary.

In contrast to Pliny, these authorities found that the trip from Indus to Taxila took three and not two working day. With Hwen Thsang escorted by loaded elphants on his way back to China, his three-day trip from Takhshasila[sic] to the Indus in Utakhanda, or Ohind, must necessarily have been as long as today's, and so the location of the town must be sought somewhere near Kâla-ka-sarâi.

The site is located near Shah-dheri, just a few miles northeast of Kâla-ka-sarâi, in the vast remains of a walled town around which I could find no less than 55 stone statues, two of which are as large as the large Manikyala grape, 28 convents and nine chapels.

Taxila's archeological site is located near the contemporary Taxila, about 35 km north-west of the town of Rawalpindi. 16] The first excavations were carried out by John Marshall, who worked in Taxila for twenty years from 1913. Taxila, however, is best known for the remains of several villages, the oldest of which dates from around 1000 BC.

Among the most important remains of Taxila are four large towns, each of which is located in three different places during a certain timeframe. Taxila's oldest village is in the Hathial section, which supplied ceramic fragments dating from the end of the 2. thousand BC to the 6. cent. BC.

Bhir Hill remains on the site date from the sixth centuries BC and border on Hathial. Sirkap' s remains date back to the 2. cent. BC and were constructed by the Greek-Bactrian monarchs of the area, who reigned in the area after the Alexander the Great attack on the territory in 326 BC.

It'?s a 2- C century B.C. Taxila medallion. Taxila Uplandupa. Archeological artefacts from the Indo-Greek layers near Taxila by John Marshall "Taxila Archeological Excavations"). Taxila: An Indian story (4th edition). During the early ages, the University of Taxila was the center of Buddhist science. Balakrishnan Muniapan, Junaid M. Shaikh (2007), "Lessons in Corporate Governance aus Kautilyas Arthashastra im alten Indien", World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development 3 (1) :

"He was also a professor of politics and economics at Taxila Unversity. The Taxila is one of the oldest known colleges in the whole word and was the most important study center in old India. "Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd edition 1951; reprinted 1989), "Ancient Indian Education. 478 ), Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-0423-6: "Thus the various education centers in different parts of the land were, so to speak, attached to the Education Center or the Taxila Universal Center, which held a kind of spiritual supremacy over the vast majority of the Indian letter writing population.

" Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd edition 1951; reprinted 1989), Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanic and Buddhist (p. 479), Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-0423-6: "This shows that Taxila was a place not of basic but of higher learning, of college or of a college different from school. "Anant Sadashiv Altekar (1934; reprinted 1965), Formation in Ancient India, Sixth Edition, revised & expanded, Nand Kishore & Bros, Varanasi:

"From the beginning, it is clear that Taxila had no collegia or universities in the contemporary meaning. "F "F. W. Thomas (1944), in John Marshall (1951; 1975 Reprint), Taxila, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi: "We come across several J?taka stories about the pupils and tutors of Taksha?il?, but not a trace of a particular instance indicates that the various "world-famous" tutors who live in this town belong to a particular collegiate or higher education institution of the contemporary age.

" <font color="#ffff00">-==- sync:ßÇÈâÈâ Encyclopædia Britannica (2007): "Taxila was not only a province residence, but also an educational school. This was not a college campus with auditoriums and housing found in Nalanda, Bihar, India.

Taxila, Antique Town, Pakistan. "Antiquity, meaning and origin of the name Takshashila or Taxila." "in Hathial dates back at least to about 1000 BC." "Taxila". This is the old Buddhist civilization of the Swat, Peshawar, Kabul and Indus valleys.

Apostle Thomas and Gondophares the King of India. A guide for Taxila. This is Cambridge Press. Exploration of ancient Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Hassan Dani, Waheed-uz-Zaman, ed. "Taxila revisited". Proceedings of the First Congress of Pakistan History & Culture at the University of Islamabad, April 1973: 109: "It can be stated from the beginning that Taxila had no college or universities in the contemporary meaning of the word.

"Magadha disciples crossed the far reaches of North India to join the Taxila school and college. From Pali passages we find that Brahmana youth, Khattiya lords and Setthi son from Rajagriha, Kashi, Kosala and other places went to Taxila to study the Vedas and eighteen natural science and art.

Takshila High School. "and Kautilya, two pioneers of antiquity, were also educated in the scholarly tradition of Taxila" ^ Prakash 1964: "Jivaka, the renowned doctor of Bimbisara, who had healed the Buddha, also learned the sciences of healing under a well-known instructor in Taxila and was named a forensic doctor in Magadha on his return. Jivaka was also a doctor of the Buddha's healing system.

Taxila's other illustrated products were the illuminated Kosala emperor Prasenajit, who is closely linked to the Buddha's age. "Taxila". Taxila Map. Old India education: India's story (4th edition). Civilisation's ascent in India and Pakistan. This is Cambridge University Press.

And Ashoka in old India. This is Harvard University Press. Formation in old India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. and the apostle Thomas. Formation in old India (6th edition). The political and social movements in the old Punjab. Introductory study of the history of India (revised second edition). Marshall, John (2013)[1960]. Guideline for Taxila (fourth edition.).

Marshall, John (1951). Taxila: The university press. From the Stone Age to the twelfth centuries, a story of old and early mediaeval India. Old geography of India: Combridge University Pres. ISBN 978110808056458. The Princeton University Press. "Taxila's urban position and its place in northwest India and Pakistan." Commons Wikimedia has related to Taxila related news items.

wikivoyage has a guidebook for taxila.

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