Cessna 182 Flight Training182 Cessna flight training
Fly with the CESSNA 182
The former 182er owners and long-standing A&P/IA Steve Ells provides many useful ideas for the operation of a Cessna Skylane in this last "stage" of his four-part 182. edition. Richard Coffey, the Cessna 182 is a hell of a plane. N777LJ, a 1966 Cessna 182J, I possessed for about four years. Whilst the advice in this paper may (sometimes, very strongly) differ from what is given in both the instructions and the manuals of the aircraft manufacturers, I have drawn on my own experience, the experience of other very skilled drivers and owner-operators, the writing of Richard Coffey in "The Skylane Pilots Companion" and John Schwaner in "Sky Ranch Engineering Manual", the research of skilled experts and proposals from Mike Jesch, the skilled C-182 operator and driver.
Be always conscious of the opportunity that a forward CG is outside the bounds, especially after every motor upgrades and when starting with full throttle and big people in the front seat. It was not unusual in early model cars (before 1965) for the lift force in the torch to run out on land; this resulted in the nose wheel being touched first, which, if coarse enough, would lead to a twisted Firewall.
1965 Cessna expanded the wingspan of horizontally stabilized and elevated car by 10 inch. If, for example, airspeed retarders have been retrofitted in the after-market, a pre-start audit is not on the Cessna list in the instruction handbook or POH. Each motor has a special "sweet spot" lubricating system. I found out after some experiments that the wet Spot for nine quart oils in the Continental O-470-R motor was in my 182.
More than that would be blown out of the engine's vent pipe and land on the aircraft's stomach. And I was very careful when my 1966 182 bubble tank leaked out. I believe that any Cessna 182 owners with a bubble must take all possible measures to ensure that there is no leakage of air into the tank.
That means that the originals flush-style tank covers must be replaced either by the small Cessna two-tab lids with elevated flanges or the Monarch lids. The first thing you should do is handle your motor carefully. A whole cycle motor screen is a useful instrument that supports managerial functions such as performance adjustment, reclining, debugging and repair.
For one of these two motors, the hardest thing you can do is to launch it with a performance adjustment that causes the motor to roar; soft launches are the keys. Adjust the output to 1,000 rev/min after starting. It is this velocity that allows the motor to gradually heat up and spray the fuel around the motor.
Once the motor has stabilized, grasp forward and remove your mix controls to rest the motor. Pilot who are learning to restrict surplus gasoline, reducing the build up of fouling in the combustor, saving gasoline and not causing fast changes in combustor temperatures. Partly burnt propellant inserted into the motor casing past the compressor ring is one of the causes of mud and hydrocarbonization.
The fastest way to contaminate your ignition plug is to use a fat mix and idle. However, since the additives do not work at lower temperature, the inclined position is the only way to decrease leads at lower performance levels. A lot of drivers believe that both are too low, so my suggestion is to begin pre-heating when the temperature drops below 40° F (4. 4° C).
With increasing motor ages, pre-heating becomes more and more important in order to minimise the load on the motor when starting. Take special care of the motor at the first race of the morning. When there is a hiccup, or when one or more of your barrels are slowly grasping and starting to shoot, it is your turn to look for a tacky outlet cock.
An easily jammed solenoid must be considered immediately, as a solenoid that jams in flight creates a very loud (read: expensive) and potentially hazardous condition. Before starting up "mag check", allow the heat of the fuel to rise to 38° C (100° F). It' s fine to do the Mag-Check with an empty mix - you can't injure the motor.
When it is too thin, the motor loses performance gradually; simply insert the mix slightly and proceed with the tests listed on the test list. Do not let the speed fall more than 100 rev/min while checking the speedo. Do not block the firewall's accelerator pedal at the beginning of your take-off run, especially if you are starting from a long apron.
It is advisable to set the damper to Mag-Check speed after releasing the brakes, re-check the motor settings and, if each indicator is flashing red, progressively increase to full output. At some point during the full load run on the take-off track or shortly after take-off, look where the pin is on the scale of the EGT indicator (or, if you have an motor monitoring screen, what kind of reading is displayed on one of your six cylinders).
As soon as you have got used to what it needs to sit back and relax against this number, you can adjust the correct starting mix for high altitudes without having to increase the engine speed before starting. In the 182s, carburettor and gasoline injectors were engineered to allow additional full gas passage to ensure coolant and avoid detonations during high performance operation.
Every Cessna 182 model has motors certified for full output operation. The motor is not subject to any operational restrictions other than those relating to temperatures and pressures. But the Cessna handbooks indicate that the performance during the ascent is lowered to about 75 per cent, 23 inch and 2,400 rev/min. Please use the performance settings you need for safe flying.
There is no need to cut back performance shortly after take-off if there is no problem with loud noises. Much of the sound comes from the prop, so if you need to cut down on your sound in order to be a good neighbour, cut down on the speed. Verify the temperature during the ascent. Even though motor builders have very high CHT thresholds (500 F for Lycoming; 460 F for Continental), it may make sense to use 400 F as the maximum threshold.
CHT reduction and monitoring tools: Decrease (1) the incline in order to raise the air flow over the cylinder; (2) open the canopy doors; and (3) and enrich the airflow. At cruising altitudes there are some tips used by 182-engine Continental drivers who have proved that they spray the air in the intake system better and blend it with the air flow.
Jesch, who is flying an 182 with an O-470-50 motor adapted by P. Ponk, adjusts his carburetor temperature to 45 F. The second ploy for the continent's mass is to move the accelerator lever astern to get it out of full stance; not enough to lower the exhaust manifolding head (MAP), but enough to make it "jerk" a little.
It tensions the damper valve and generates a whirlwind flow of fresh compressed exhaust gas downstream of the primary exhaust jet, which also helps to mix and distribute the fuel-air mix. Yesch, who already flown us to AirVenture in 2016, uses a very basic energy managment blueprint. With this schema and the two above described moves he can successfully sit back on 11 grams per hour in the cruising at 65 per cent performance.
GAM injectors minimize the difference between the fuel streams in each barrel. In this way, Lycoming users can take full benefit of Lean-of-Peak Mix setting if they wish. Lycomings can achieve the performance of 65 per cent and below for Lycomings and 65 per cent and below for Lycomings.
In the Cessna User Guides and Points of Interest (POHs), the pilot is advised to adapt the mix as required during descents and to set the mix steering to full-fat before land. My personal feeling is that there is no need to set any controls other than the accelerator pedal during the relegation. If the output is decreased, the propeller controller continues to steer the propeller speed until the accelerator pedal is almost full and the exhaust head is quite low.
It is the right moment to bring the support controls into the high speed positions to get ready for the end glide, the move down and a possible go-around. These practices reduce noticeable noises because the propeller is not "powered up" and the passenger does not sense the speed boost that helps push the propeller forward fully under current.
It is not necessary to place the mix in the full fat before draining. You have adjusted the mix for cruising performance, and if you decrease performance, the amount of gasoline required for burning will decrease. When you push the mix forward, unused gasoline is released into the mix and causes a quick variation in the inside temperature of the cylinders.
In an 182, the keys to detecting a landing are velocity controls in the endgame. The 182s can be climbed with 40 degree doors, but a 20 degree adjustment presents feelings and attractions that come much nearer to a regular launch. And the only thing that happens when you need a full mix of cruising and touchtown again is when you have to walk around it.
When a plane suddenly drives onto the take-off and landing runways, when you're in the brief finale, there's plenty of free space to push the mix and accelerator pedal. As soon as you are on the floor and off the airstrip, open the canopy doors, lift the doors and dispense the mix. You do everything you can to minimize buildup at the piston and outlet valve by decreasing the amount of gasoline that flows through the bottom of the motor.
When refuelling, move the Selector Fuel Valves "left" or "right" and whenever you are parking on a dock for the night, stopping for a $100 Hamburg citizen, or making another brief ride away from the plane. It is a straightforward procedure that avoids fuelling from one reservoir to another by adjusting "both" on the fuelling selection valves.
In conclusion, I suggest every pilots and owners of the Cessna 182 to look at "The Skylane Pilots Companion" by Richard Coffey. He is a former technical consultant and journalist of the Cessna Pilots Association and was co-editor of AOPA Pilots until 2008.