Fly Plan

flight schedule

That'?s good advice - until the plan doesn't make sense anymore. class="mw-headline" id="Route_or_flight_paths">Route oder Flugwege[edit]

Timetables are those papers submitted by a pilots or schedulers to the appropriate Civil Aviation Authority (e.g., the FAA in the United States) in advance of take-off that specify the intended routing or air travel of the aeroplane. Timetable formats are defined in ICAO Doc 4444. This usually includes fundamental information such as point of take-off and point of landing, approximate travel times, alternative aerodromes in case of adverse atmospheric conditions, mode of operation (whether IFR or VFR), information from the pilots, number of persons onboard and information about the aeroplane itself.

Timetables are mandatory for IFRS services in most jurisdictions, but may be optionally available for VFR services unless they cross national boundaries. Timetables are strongly encouraged, especially when passing over hostile areas such as sea, as they offer a way of alarming the emergency services when the trip is on time. For the United States and Canada, either an Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) or a specific VFR schedule, known as a DVFR (Defense VFR), must be submitted when passing through.

Timetables for IFRS are used by ANSP to trigger ticketing and route management activities. On VFR travels, their sole objective is to supply the necessary information when searching and rescuing missions are necessary, or for use by ANSPs in the case of travels in a "special area".

Routings used in aircraft scheduling are: Respiratory, Novaid and Immediate. Routes can consist of different type sections. Thus, for example, a Chicago-Rome itinerary might involve a respiratory itinerary across the USA and Europe, but a straight Atlantic itinerary. Respiratory tract guidance takes place along predefined routes known as airways.

Respiratory passages can be regarded as three-dimensional motorways for airplanes. Most of the world's terrestrial regions require airplanes to fly between the starting and finishing airport. Respiratory guidance regulations include height, airspeed and respiratory entry and exit procedures (see STARs and SIDs). The majority of respiratory passages are 14 kilometres in width, and the altitudes of the respiratory passages keep the planes at least 1000 metres vertically apart from the planes on the top and bottom of the area.

Respiratory tracts usually cross in navaids, which indicate the permitted points for switching from one respiratory tract to another. Respiratory tract morphology is subdivided into large and small heights. It covers elevations from about 1200 ft above floor levels (AGL) to 5,486 metres (17,999 ft) above mean ocean floor levels (MSL). Levels that separate low and high respiratory tract patterns vary from state to state.

A navajid route is usually only permitted in the USA. If a schedule provides for navajid routeing between two navajids linked by an airway, follow the instructions for that particular route, as if the airplane had performed it. Permissible heights are taken into account in the different levels.

When one or both end points of the rout segments are on a latitude/longitude that is not on a Navaid, directional guidance will occur directly. A number of scheduling organisations stipulate that the control points created for a non-stop service have a restricted spacing or span of flying between control points (i.e. non-stop control points may be further apart for a high-speed aeroplane than for a slower one).

The SID and STAR are methods and control points used for boarding and disembarking IFR-operated aeroplanes into the respiratory system. It is a point of intersection where an respiratory tract and a SID or STAR cross. An SID, or Standard Instrument Departure, redefines a path from an airfield to the respiratory tract pattern.

An STAR or Standard Terminal Arrival Route ("Standard Instrument Arrival" in the UK) describes a route to an airfield from the respiratory tract topology. Generally, schedulers are required to refrain from using areas of scheduling known as SUA (Special Use Airspace). Governments and armed forces may have different demands for certain SUA areas or may receive specific approvals for crossing these areas.

Altitudes (FL) are used by pilots to facilitate the perpendicular division of airplanes, and every 1000 ft compared to an established inflation height is one. The 92 inch quicksilver is input into the meter and the height is then called the flying surface. For example, the 29000 foot FL290. height is transformed into a flying height by eliminating the two following zeroes.

However, if sealevel pressures happen to be the global default, then elevation is also elevation. In order to prevent confusions, the elevation below the transitional elevation is designated as numerical elevation, e.g. "Descent 5000 feet" and above the transitional elevation "Climbing elevation 250". There are a number of standardised flying standards (sometimes known as " flying models ") that have to be used by airlines when they are on the air.

In a bidirectional respiratory tract, each sense has its own record of flying heights. In order to be considered effective, a timetable must contain a legitimate aerodrome at which the aeroplane travels by air. Changes in the airways may necessitate a modification in altitude. FL190 (i.e. FL190, FL210, FL230 etc.); to the west (direction 180-359 degrees) IFRS must specify a "straight" altitude in 2000 footsteps from FL180 (i.e. FL180, FL200, FL220 etc.).

Air navigation services (ATC) can, however, allocate any flying surface at any moment if changes in elevation are required by road conditions. Aeroplane efficiencies rise with altitude. The combustion of propellant reduces the mass of an aeroplane, which can then decide to raise its aerodrome to further reduce it. Thus, for example, an airplane can achieve the FL290 early in a flight, but a gradual ascent to the FL370 later on the way, after the mass has declined due to propellant use.

A part of your timetable is often the identifying of one or more aerodromes that can be approached under unforeseen circumstances (e.g. weather). Attention must be paid in the design phase to ensuring that only alternative aerodromes are included that can be served by the expected amount of propellant and the expected overall mass of the aeroplane and that have the capability to manage the aeroplane model.

IFR schedules in Canada, unlike those in the United States, unless expressly exempt by a Certificate of Operation issued by the carrier, call for an alternative international departure point regardless of the predicted meteorological conditions at the place of use. To be regarded as a legal replacement, the aerodrome must be forecasted to reach or exceed certain minimum meteorological values at the expected date of arrivals.

Minimal meteorological requirements differ depending on the approach at the alternative airports and can be found in the General section of Canada Air Pilot (CAP). It is the responsibility of airframe builders to generate air traffic management information that can be used by schedulers to assess how much aviation fuels are required for a particular route.

Planners use forecast meteorology and airplane weights as input for air traffic management information to assess the amount of propellant needed to achieve the goal. As a rule, consumption is expressed as the mass of the propellant (usually pound or kilogram) rather than the mass (e.g. gallon or litre), since the mass of the airplane is decisive.

Additionally to the normal demand for propellant, some companies demand that a timetable contains spare propellant if certain requirements are fulfilled. Thus, for example, a surface voyage of more than a certain length of time may necessitate that the timetable contains spare gas. Spare propellant may be scheduled to remain on the aeroplane at final location as an additive or may be considered burnt during travel (possibly due to difference between real aeroplane and air travel performances).

Stopping above the target airport or alternative airport is a necessary part of some timetables. In case the timetable provides for stop scheduling, the extra propellant and stop times should appear on the timetable. Guy: Nature of the timetable. Airplane identification: Aeroplane check-in, usually the number of the plane or stern.

Aeroplane type/special equipment: It'?s the airplane guy and the equipment. Estimated speed at which the airplane will travel in nodes. As a rule, the identification of the airfield from which the plane departs. Departures time: The departures are coordinated to universal hours. Planed range or height of travel. Itinerary: Route: Recommended air itinerary.

Routes can consist of respiratory tracts, crossings, navigation marks or even directly. Exactly: Approximate amount of travel time: Scheduled lapsed period of travel between take-off and final point of landing. A frequent comment is "SSNO", which means that the PIC is not able or willing to receive a SID or STAR on an IFRS plane. Quantity of kerosene on airplane, in hour and minute flying times.

This may be necessary for an IFRS timetable if bad wheather is predicted at the scheduled location. Number of persons on a plane. Colour of the aircraft: This colour assists the identification of the airplane for the searching and emergency team. One way to contact the pilots is useful to track down an airplane that has not closed its schedule and may be past due or in need.

AGL A measure of the altitude above a certain landmass (see also MSL). "Norms adopted by member states of International Civil Aeronautics Organisation (ICAO) covering all relevant issues of technology and operations in the field of global civilian aeronautics, such as security, staff certification, operations of aeroplanes, airports, air navigation service, casualty investigations and the environmental sector.

Median Ocean Level (MSL) The mean elevation of the ocean floor for all phases of the flood; used as a benchmark for elevation (see also AGL). Routes Forecast (ROFOR) A form for sending meteorological information. Zero Fuels Weights ( "ZFW") The weights of the airplane with flight crews, freight, and passenger, but without gas.

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