Airplane TaxiingAircraft Taxi
With slow movements on the take-off and landings runways, large aeroplanes are controlled with the aid of a milling machine, while with rapid movements, however, they are controlled only with the aid of control surfaces. First let us discuss a little about rolling. Rolling ", in terms of aeroplanes, means the simple motion of an aeroplane on the floor when it neither takes off nor lands.
Taxi driving, in other words, is the process of controlling the motion of an airplane (on the ground) with its own force. In some cases also written "estimating", it usually relates to the motion of an airplane on its tires, but is also used on planes with swimmers or skiers.
Please be aware that taxiing does not involve dragging an airplane when towed by a tractor; it only relates to the self-propelled motion of the airplane. Even the high-speed run that an airplane performs on the take-off strip before take-off is not part of taxiing. This also applies to the delayed run shortly after landing on the take-off and landing area.
As you may already know, merchant aircraft roll at low speed because they have to negotiate a web of interconnected traffic lanes, especially at large aerodromes. It is therefore self-evident that the precise control of an aircraft, as can be foreseen, is of the utmost importance. What is the control of aircraft on the floor like?
Aircraft movements on the floor can be roughly subdivided into two stages: when the aircraft is moving on "taxiways" (i.e. on connecting streets connecting airport take-off and landings with terminals) and when it is moving down the airport during take-off and landings. When taxiing, an aircraft is controlled with a special type of instrument that the pilot calls "the cutter".
Even though the precise location in the flight deck will vary according to the model of airliner in which it is accommodated, the cutter is usually located on the side of the operating console, so the pilot will usually operate it with only one arm (using both arms is not required). Even though the cutter does not look like the driving wheels of a vehicle, it works like this.
If you turn the milling cutter, the gears are turned directly under the airplane's lug, and the remainder of the airplane follows accordingly. In this way, you can easily control the airplane and even negotiate narrow curves on taxiway routes. Milling machines, however, are usually present in the flight decks of large airliners.
The smaller aircraft do not have the necessary equipment to turn their bikes, so they have two options: to take a firm, even route, or to use other steering techniques. This is a very common way of controlling an aircraft (which does not have a milling cutter). Like the name implies, it works by actuating the brake on the side of the aircraft's tyres, which causes it to swivel around that tyre and move in the right way.
What differentials work like on planes. One similar procedure for controlling a small airplane with an internal combustion engine on each side is known as throttle control. The result is that the airplane rotates more quietly. Tilers help control an airplane when it is getting slower, but when it runs down the taxiway, the dynamic changes... dramatically.
As you can see, when an airplane travels on taxiway, it is very simple to turn it to the left/right by turning the milling cutter accordingly. But if you drive too quickly, as with "take off/landing fast", using the cutter to turn the nosewheel could cause the nosewheel to break off and cause a predictable disaster.
Therefore, the use of the milling machine and technologies such as brake differentials and braking during take-off and landings are taboo. Basically, the oar is a small symmetric aerofoil turned at its end, which can be seen on the back of passenger planes. Pilots control the left/right motion of the control surface, which in turn contributes to making small course adjustments when the airplane is moving too quickly on the airstrip.
They also help control the airplane once it's in the air. For example, the oar does not offer the airplane much manoeuvrability, but it is enough to make minute adaptations and stay on a steady course before take-off and after landing: Ashish is a natural scientist (Bachelor of Science) from Punjabi University (India).