Transportation to

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Criminal transport or transportation means the transfer of sentenced offenders or other individuals who are considered unwanted to a remote location, often a settlement for a specified period of time; later, specially created criminal settlements became their destination". From the 1610s until the beginning of the American Revolution in 1776, England carried its inmates, politicians and POWs from Scotland and Ireland to its US territories when transport to America was provisionally stopped by Criminal Law 1776 (16 Geo. 3 c.43).

1 ] The practise was prescribed in Scotland by a law of 1785, but was less widespread there than in England. Transport on a large scale recommenced with the first fleet leaving for Australia in 1787 and lasted until 1868. From 1852 to 1953 and 1897 respectively, France carried prisoners to Devil's Island and New Caledonia.

Originally on the basis of the regal privilege of mercy[4] and later under English law, transport was an alternate punishment for a crime; it was usually applied to crimes for which capital punishment was considered too onerous. Until 1670, when new crimes were identified, the possibility of being condemned to transport was granted.

5 ][6] The falsification of a paper, for example, was a felony until the eighteen -20s, when the fine was limited to transportation. According to the offence, the punishment was either for a lifetime or for a certain number of years. In this way, many perpetrators remained in the prison as free individuals and were able to obtain jobs as prison guards or other employees of the prison population.

Before the Act of 1707 the traffic of Scotland was not used; after the 1717 Act of the European Community it was expressly barred in Scotland. 7] Under the transport, etc. With the Act of 1785 (25 Geo. 3 c. 46), the British Parliament expanded the use of transport specifically to Scotland.

As a result, some prisoners were able to return to a more ordinary lifestyle, get married and bring up a host families, and help develop the population. The punitive transport was not restricted to men or even grown-ups. Men, wives and infants were condemned to transport, but enforcement differed according to sex and aging.

Between 1660 and 1670, Highway Rape, Breaking and Entry, and Horsestealing were the most common criminal offenses involving the transportation of men. During those years, five of the nine wives condemned to die were found to have been simply stolen, a crime for which the priesthood did not favour the wives until 1692.

Shopkeepers also favoured young and strong men, for whom there was a great need in the settlements. When the American Revolutionary War broke out (1775-1783), the transport to America was stopped. Parliament asserted that "the transport of prisoners to His Majesty's Majesty's colonies and orchards in America... is afflicted with various troubles, in particular by denying this realm many entities whose work could be useful to the Fellowship and who, with correct maintenance and adjustment, could be recalled from their bad course"; they then adopted "An act which they must approve".

Punishing criminals through forced labor who can or will be transferred to one of His Majesty's camps and estates for certain offences. For the following ten years, men were instead condemned to forced labor and females to prison. The search for alternate sites for the posting of prisoners was not simple, and the law was expanded twice by the Criminal Law Act 1778 (18 Geo. 3 c. 62) and the Criminal Law Act 1779 (19 Geo. 3, c. 54).

This led to an investigation by a parliamentary committee on the whole issue of transport and sanctioning in 1779; first, the Law on Penitentiary was adopted, which introduced a politics of state jails as a means of reforming the system of crowded jail bodies that had evolved, but there were never jails constructed as a consequence of the law.

44] The transport, etc. Law 1784 (24 Geo. 3 c. 56)[45] and the transportation, etc. The Crown was authorized by both actions to target certain places within or outside its dominion to transport offenders; the actions would move prisoners across the land if they were needed for work or where they could be used and located.

In the early nineteenth centuries, transport for the rest of one's lives became the ultimate punishment for several crimes previously condemned to deaths. 49 ] With grievances from the 1830s onwards, the penalties for transport became less frequent in 1840 because the system was seen as a failure: criminality went on at a high level, humans were not deterred from perpetrating crimes, and prisoner terms in the camps were cruel.

Despite a concertaneous programme to build prisons followed, the Short Titles Act of 1896 listed seven other acts referring to criminal justice in the first half of the nineteenth centuries, including the[51] Transportation Act of 1824 (5 Geo. 4 c. 84) "An Act for the Transportation of Offenders from Great Britain.

" Transport Act, 1825 (6 Geo. 4 c. 69) "A law to punish crimes perpetrated by transportation held labor-intensive in the colonies...". Transport Law 1830 (11 Geo. 39) "A law amending a law adopted in the fifth year of His present Majesty on the transportation of criminals from Great Britain and the punishment of crimes perpetrated by shipments held for work in the colonies.

" Transport Act 1834 (4 & 5 Will. 4 c. 67) "A law to abolish the death penalty on return from transportation. "Transport Law 1843 (6 & 7 Vict. c. 7) "A law amending the Act on Carried Offenders with regard to pardons and holiday tickets.

" Transport Law 1847 (10 & 11 Vict. c. 67) "A law amending the law on the retention of offenders. "Transportation (Ireland) Act 1849 (12 & 13 Vict. c. 27) "An Act to Remove Doubts concerning the Transportation of Offenders under judgment of Death, to whom Mercy can be extended in Ireland.

" American Revolution ended the transport. Today, the remainder of the UK camps in Canada were near the New United States of America, so detainees there might be opposed to the UK authority. UK dungeons were crowded, and decayed vessels anchored in various harbours were put into commission as swimming dungeons known as "hulls".

Experiments to transport sentenced detainees to West Africa[59] turned out to be fruitless. That is why the UK Government has chosen to look elsewhere and is warning that transport damages to the viaduct can be penalised. 1787 the "First Fleet" of prisoners' vessels left England to found the first UK estate in Australia as a penitentiary camp.

Northfolk Island was a prison housing estate from 1788-94 and again from 1824-47. Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) was also populated as a penitentiary in 1803, followed by the Moreton Bay settlement (Queensland) in 1824. All the other Australia slaves were "free settlements", as they were called non-compliant slaves. The Swan River Colony (Western Australia), however, took on transports from England and Ireland in 1851 to remedy a prolonged lack of manpower.

Up until the huge immigration of Australians during the 1850' Australia golden age, free colonists were defeated by British and Irish detainees and their heirs. Australia, however, had many more British detainees than America. From the 1860s until the end of the transports in 1897, New Caledonia became a prison camp in France.

Enemies of imperial domination in Britain's Columbian India were carried to the Cellular Jail on the Andaman Islands. Probably the most celebrated detainee carried is the military official Alfred Dreyfus, who was unjustly sentenced for betrayal in a lawsuit in 1894 and imprisoned in an anti-Semitic environment. He' sent to Devil's Island, a Penalty Penitentiary in Guiana.

Punitive transport is a characteristic of many wide pages, and a number of these transport Ballads were gathered by tradition singer. "William Somerset Maugham, the UK writer, has published a number of his shorts in the Cambodian penitentiary camps in France. Kafka's tale "In the Colony of Penalties", which takes place at an unknown place, was later adopted for several other mediums, among them an oper by Philip Glass.

After being arrested soon after the young Pip assisted him, Mr Smith was condemned to lifelong transport to New South Wales, Australia. Namberlake Wertenbaker's piece Our Country's Good, inspired by Thomas Keneally's novel The Playmaker, is played in Australia's first penalty team. Veer Savarkar's memory of his captivity, My Transportation for life, plays in the British Cellular Jail on the Andaman Islands.

Papillon is a novel that recounts the history of Henri Charrière, a France felon sentenced to murder on 26 October 1931 and banished to the Guinea penitentiary on Devil's Island. Punitive transports, usually to other continents, sometimes occur in works of sci-fi. The Moon is a Harsh Mistress by Robert Heinlein is a classical example, in which prisoners and dissident politicians are carried to moon camps.

Heinlein's novel necessarily contains a lasting phrase about the transport of the Sun, since the long-term physical consequences of the Moon's faint superficial gravitation (about one-sixth of the Earth's surface) make "madmen" incapable of returning to Earth safe. Essie McGowan's history in Neil Gaiman's America Gods is built around her transportation and the promotion of Cornish Folklore in America.

Leap up ^ "An act to allow, for a finite period of times, the use of forced labor to punish criminals who are or will be destined for certain offences to be transferred to one of His Majesty's colonies and orchards. Skip up to: a o a " An act for the effective transportation of serious criminals and other criminals in the part of Britain known as Scotland and to allow the distance of detainees in certain places.

Quoted in Karl Frederick Geiser, Redeemer and Contracting Servant in the Pennsylvania Kolony and Commons, Supplement to the Yale Review, Vol. 2 No. 2, August 1901. "Skip to ^ July 30, 1649 law that empowers the mayor, Justice of Gaol Shipment for Newgate, to move sixty detainees condemned for crime and other hideous felonies to the Summer Islands or other new English plantations.

Skip to ^ "An act for the effective transportation of criminals and other criminals; and to allow the transportation of detainees in certain cases; and for other specified uses. Skip to ^ "An act that allows His Majesty to empower His Majesty's Gouverneur or Vice-Gouverneur of such places beyond the oceans to which criminals and other perpetrators may be shipped to enact the punishments of those perpetrators.

" Skip to ^ Prisoners and the UK Kolonies in Australia Archived on January 1, 2016 at the Wayback Machine. "Britain's prisoners sent to American colonies." After the American War of Independence, which was almost ruined, and in the hopes of resuming the transport of prisoners to America, who were rapidly disappearing, Britain had started to secretly banish its perpetrators to West Africa.

Church, A. Roger (1987), Bound for America. Transporting Prisoners to the Oxford Kolonies, 1718-1775:

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